Reforesting the Amazon

Why Agricultural Intensification Is Key to Restoring the World's Tropical Forests

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2. Elizabeth Barona, Navin Ramankutty, Glenn Hyman, and Oliver T. Coomes, “The role of pasture and soybean in deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon,” Environmental Research Letters 5, no. 2 (2010).  

3. Matthew G. Betts, Christopher Wolf, William J. Ripple, Ben Phalan, Kimberley A. Millers, Adam Duarte, Stuart H. M. Butchart, and Taal Levi, “Global forest loss disproportionately erodes biodiversity in intact landscapes,” Nature 547 (2017): 441–444, https://doi:10.1038/nature23285.

4. Eric W. Sanderson, Malanding Jaiteh, Marc A. Levy, Kent H. Redford, Antoinette V. Wannebo, and Gillian Woolmer, “The Human Footprint and the Last of the Wild: The human footprint is a global map of human influence on the land surface, which suggests that human beings are stewards of nature, whether we like it or not,” BioScience 52, no. 10 (2002): 891–904, https://doi.org/10.1641/0006-3568(2002)052[0891:THFATL]2.0.CO;2.

5. FAOSTAT, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017).

6. Data from http://www.yieldgap.org/. For Brazil, simulated average weighted maize yield, Yw = 8.69 t/ha. Actual reported maize yield = 4.67 t/ha. Yield gap = (8.69-4.67)/4.67 = 0.86.

7. Data from FAOSTAT. Average cattle yield in Africa = 155 kg/animal.

8. Pablo Tittonell and Ken E. Gillerb,  “When yield gaps are poverty traps: The paradigm of ecological intensification in African smallholder agriculture,” Field Crops Research 143 (2013): 76–90, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2012.10.007.

9. P. K. O’Brien, “Agriculture and the Industrial Revolution,” The Economic History Review 30 (1977), https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0289.1977.tb00260.x.

10. Jikun Huang and Scott Rozelle, “Agricultural development and policy before and after China’s WTO accession,” in Agriculture and Food Security in China: What Effect WTO Accession and Regional Trade Agreements?, ed. Chunlai Chen and Ron Duncan (ANU Press, 2008), 27–54.

11. Robert M. Ewers, Jörn P. W. Scharlemann, Andrew Balmford, and Rhys E. Green, “Do increases in agricultural yield spare land for nature?” Global Change Biology 15, no. 7 (2009): 1716–1726, https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01849.x.

12. Ben Phalan, Rhys E. Green, Lynn V. Dicks, Graziela Dotta, Claire Feniuk, Anthony Lamb, Bernardo B. N. Strassburg, David R. Williams, Erasmus K. H. J. zu Ermgassen, and Andrew Balmford, “How can higher-yield farming help to spare nature?” Science 351, no. 6272: 450–451, https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad0055.