Frequently Asked Questions About Renewables

1. Grubler, Arnulf. 2008. "Energy transitions." In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment. http://user.iiasa.ac.at/~gruebler/Data/EoE_Data.html.

2. Bolt, J. and J. L. van Zanden (2013). The First Update of the Maddison Project; Re-Estimating Growth Before 1820. Maddison Project Working Paper 4. http://www.ggdc.net/maddison/maddison-project/data.htm.

3. IIASA Population Projections. http://www.iiasa.ac.at/web/home/research/modelsData/PopulationProjections/POP.en.html.

4. Loftus, Peter J.; Cohen, Armond M.; Long, Jane C.S.; Jenkins, Jesse D. In Press. “Global Decarbonization Scenarios: A Critical Review.” WIRES Climate Change.

5. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013. http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy.html

6. Trembath, Alex; Nordhaus, Ted; Shellenberger, Michael; Luke, Max. 2013. Coal Killer: How Natural Gas Fuels the Clean Energy Revolution. Breakthrough Institute. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/coal-killer.

7. Grubler, Arnulf. 2008. "Energy transitions." In: Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Cutler J. Cleveland. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment. http://user.iiasa.ac.at/~gruebler/Data/EoE_Data.html.

8. Steadman, Ian. 2012. “Germany sets solar record, meets half of electricity demand.” Wired Magazinehttp://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2012-05/28/germany-sets-solar-power-record.

11. MacKay, David J.C. 2008. Sustainable Energy – Without the Hot Air. UIT. http://www.withouthotair.com/.
 
12. US Energy Information Administration. Electric Power Monthly. Table 6.7.B. Capacity Factors for Utility Scale Generators Not Primarily Using Fossil Fuels. January 2008-April 2014. http://www.eia.gov/electricity/monthly/epm_table_grapher.cfm?t=epmt_6_07_b.
 
13. Burger, Bruno. 2014. “Electricity production from solar and wind in Germany in 2013.” Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE. http://www.ise.fraunhofer.de/en/downloads-englisch/pdf-files-englisch/news/electricity-production-from-solar-and-wind-in-germany-in-2013.pdf
 
14. For more on the effect intermittency exerts on existing power systems, see: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study,” January 2010; Constantine Gonatas, “Wind Integration And The Cost of Carbon,” Public Utilities Fortnightly, March 2011; Debra Lew et al., “How do Wind and Solar Power Affect Grid Operations: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study,” National Renewable Energy Laboratory, September 2009; ISO New England, “New England Wind Integration Study,” December 2010; New York Independent System Operator, “Growing Wind: Final Report of the NYISO 2010 Wind Generation Study,” September 2010; Daniel T. Kaffine et al. 2012, op cit. note 63; Joseph A. Cullen, “Measuring the environmental benefits of wind-generated electricity,” Working Paper, October 2011; John Deutch and Ernest Moniz 2011, op cit. note 93; James Bushnell, “Building Blocks: Investment in Renewable and Non-Renewable Technologies,” Energy Institute at Haas Working Paper Series, WP 202, February 2010.
 
15. Heard, Ben. “Ivanpah’s Land Footprint: World’s Largest Thermal Project Requires 92 Times the Acreage of Babcock & Wilcox ‘Twin Pack.’” March 23, 2014. The Breakthrough. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/calculating-ivanpahs-solar-sprawl.
 
16. Heaven, Will. “Nuclear power vs. wind farms: the infographic the Government doesn’t want you to see.” The Telegraph. October 25, 2013. http://blogs.telegraph.co.uk/news/willheaven/100243023/nuclear-power-vs-wind-farms-the-infographic-the-government-doesnt-want-you-to-see/
 
17. McDonald RI, Fargione J, Kiesecker J, Miller WM, Powell J (2009) Energy Sprawl or Energy Efficiency: Climate Policy Impacts on Natural Habitat for the United States of America. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6802. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006802.
 
18. McDonald RI, Fargione J, Kiesecker J, Miller WM, Powell J (2009) Energy Sprawl or Energy Efficiency: Climate Policy Impacts on Natural Habitat for the United States of America. PLoS ONE 4(8): e6802. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006802. 
 
19. Ball, Jeffrey. “Renewable Energy, Meet the New Nimbys: Solar and Wind-Power Proposals Draw Opposition from Residents Fearing Visual Blight; a Dilemma for Some Environmentalists.” September 4, 2009. The Wall Street Journalhttp://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB125201834987684787

20. Nicholson, Megan; Stepp, Matthew. “Challenging the Clean Energy Deployment Consensus.” Center for Clean Energy Innovation. October 2013. http://energyinnovation.us/portfolio-items/challenging-the-clean-energy-deployment-consensus/

21. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2013. http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/about-bp/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy.html.

22. Wise, Marshall, et al. "Implications of limiting CO2 concentrations for land use and energy." Science 324.5931 (2009): 1183-1186.
 
23. Jesse Jenkins, Mark Muro, Ted Nordhaus, Michael Shellenberger, Letha Tawney, and Alex Trembath, “Beyond Boom & Bust: Putting Clean Tech on a Path to Subsidy Independence,” Breakthrough Institute, Brookings Institution, and World Resources Institute, April 2012. http://thebreakthrough.org/archive/beyond_boom_and_bust_summary_o.

24. Database of State Incentives for Renewables & Efficiency (DSIRE). http://www.dsireusa.org/

25. US Energy Information Administration. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Sources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2014. http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/electricity_generation.cfm

26. Nordhaus, Ted; Lovering, Jessica; Shellenberger, Michael. “How to Make Nuclear Cheap: Safety, Readiness, Modularity, and Efficiency.” Breakthrough Institute. July 2013. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/how-to-make-nuclear-cheap.

27. Electric Power Research Institute. “The Integrated Grid: Realizing the Full Value of Central and Distributed Energy Resources.” 2014. http://www.eenews.net/assets/2014/02/10/document_cw_02.pdf.

28. April Lee et al., “Interactions, Complementarities and Tensions at the Nexus of Natural Gas and Renewable Energy,” The Electricity Journal, 25 (December 2012). 

29. Nicola, Stefan. “German Lawmakers Vote to Reduce Renewable-Energy Subsidies.” Bloomberg. June 27, 2014. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-06-27/german-lawmakers-back-new-clean-energy-law-to-reduce-subsidies.html

30. Mills, Andrew and Wiser, Ryan. 2012. “Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California.” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL-5445E). http://emp.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/lbnl-5445e.pdf.

31. Mills, Andrew and Wiser, Ryan. 2012. “Changes in the Economic Value of Variable Generation at High Penetration Levels: A Pilot Case Study of California.” Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL-5445E). http://emp.lbl.gov/sites/all/files/lbnl-5445e.pdf

32. Burger, Bruno. 2014. “Electricity production from solar and wind in Germany in 2013.” Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE. http://www.ise.fraunhofer.de/en/downloads-englisch/pdf-files-englisch/news/electricity-production-from-solar-and-wind-in-germany-in-2013.pdf.

33. Nordhaus, Ted; Shellenberger, Michael; Trembath, Alex. “Is Distributed Generation Really the Future?” POWER Magazine. January 1, 2014. http://www.powermag.com/is-distributed-generation-really-the-future/
 
34. Worstall, Tim. “Renewables Get 25 Times the Subsidy That Fossil Fuels Do.” Forbes. November 13, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2013/11/13/renewables-get-25-times-the-subsidy-that-fossil-fuels-do/.

35. Plumer, Brad. “IMF: Want to fight climate change? Get rid of $1.9 trillion in energy subsidies.” The Washington Post. March 27, 2013. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2013/03/27/imf-want-to-fight-climate-change-get-rid-of-1-9-trillion-in-energy-subsidies/.

36. Jenkins, Jesse. “Phasing Out Fossil Fuel Subsidies Will Help, But Only Innovation Can Make Clean Energy Cheap.” Breakthrough Institute. November 10, 2010. http://thebreakthrough.org/archive/phasing_out_fossil_fuel_subsid.

37. Jesse Jenkins, Mark Muro, Ted Nordhaus, Michael Shellenberger, Letha Tawney, and Alex Trembath, “Beyond Boom & Bust: Putting Clean Tech on a Path to Subsidy Independence,” Breakthrough Institute, Brookings Institution, and World Resources Institute, April 2012.

38. Moss, Todd and Ben Leo. “Nature Gas vs Renewables for OPIC: What’s the Tradeoff?” Center for Global Development. January 30, 2014. http://www.cgdev.org/blog/natural-gas-vs-renewables-opic-whats-tradeoff.

39. Trembath, Alex. “The Low-Energy Club: Sierra Club Report Calls for Universal Electricity Access at 0.15 Percent California Levels.” Breakthrough Institute. June 30, 2014. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/the-low-energy-club.

40. Caine, Mark et al. “Our High-Energy Planet.” Breakthrough Institute. April 2014. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/our-high-energy-planet.