Fear and Time

Risk Culture and the Broken Doomsday Clock

REFERENCES

1. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, “2015: It Is 3 Minutes to Midnight,” http://thebulletin.org/clock/2015.

2. Bulletin Staff, “Remembering the Cuban Missile Crisis,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, available at http://thebulletin.org/remembering-cuban-missile-crisis.

3. Anders Sandberg, Jason G. Matheny, and Milan M. Ćirković, “How can we reduce the risk of human extinction?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Sept 9 2008, http://thebulletin.org/how-can-we-reduce-risk-human-extinction.

4. Laura Kahn, “Going Viral,” Jan 17 2012, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists http://thebulletin.org/going-viral.

5. Eileen R. Choffnes, Stanley M. Lemon, and David A. Relman, “A brave new world in the life sciences,” Bulletin of the Atomic Sciences, September/October 2006.

6. Devabhaktuni Srikrishna and Ranu S. Dhillon, “Eboloa: a slow-motion atomic bomb,” Bulletin of the Atomic Sciences,” November 25, 2014, http://thebulletin.org/ebola-slow-motion-atomic-bomb7825.

7. Hugh Gusterson, “ISIS vs. Ebola,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, October 23, 2014, http://thebulletin.org/isis-vs-ebola7753.

8.  John L. Remo and Hans J. Haubold, “Threats from space: 20 years of progress” Bulletin of the Atomic Sciences, July/August 2014, http://bos.sagepub.com/content/70/4/85.full.pdf+html

9.  Margaret E. Kosal, “Is small scary?” Bulletin of the Atomic Sciences, September 2004, http://bos.sagepub.com/content/60/5/38.full

10. Fred Guterl, “Armageddon 2.0,” Bulletin of the Atomic Sciences, November 2012, http://thebulletin.org/armageddon-20

11. Mark Gubrud, “Stopping killer robots,” Bulletin of the Atomic Sciences, January 2014, http://thebulletin.org/2014/january/stopping-killer-robots

12. http://thebulletin.org/multimedia/2013-doomsday-clock-symposium 

13.  http://thebulletin.org/doomsday-clockwork8052

14. Kennette Benedict, “Existential threats, fast and slow,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, July 18, 2013, http://thebulletin.org/existential-threats-fast-and-slow.

15. Kennette Benedict, “Doomsday clockwork,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 3, 2015, http://thebulletin.org/doomsday-clockwork8052.

16. “Doomsday Clock: Overview,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists http://thebulletin.org/overview.

17. Laura Kahn, “DIY biology,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, June 18, 2012 http://thebulletin.org/diy-biology

18. The controversial gain of function studies were by Masaki Imai, et al., “Experimental adaptation of an influenza H5 HA confers respiratory droplet transmission to a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus in ferrets,” Nature 486, no. 7403, (2012), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v486/n7403/full/nature10831.html; Sander Herfst, et al., “Airborne Transmission of Influenza A/H5N1 Virus Between Ferrets,” Science 22, no. 6088 (2012), http://www.sciencemag.org/content/336/6088/1534.full.

19. World Health Organization, “Cumulative number of confirmed human causes for avian influenza A (H5N1), reported to WHO, 2003-2015, http://www.who.int/influenza/human_animal_interface/EN_GIP_20150303cumulativeNumberH5N1cases.pdf?ua=1.

20. Jesse Emspak, “Bird Flu More Prevalent, Less Deadly Than Expected,” LiveScience, February 23, 2012, http://www.livescience.com/18630-h5n1-bird-flu-prevalence-mortality-rate.html.

21. Sara Reardon, “Viral-research moratorium called too broad,” Nature News, October 23, 2014, http://www.nature.com/news/viral-research-moratorium-called-too-broad-1.16211.

22. Peter Palese, “Don’t censor life-saving science,” Nature News, January 11, 2012, http://www.nature.com/news/don-t-censor-life-saving-science-1.9777.

25. Charles Perrow, “Five assessments of the Fukushima disaster,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 11, 2014, http://thebulletin.org/five-assessments-fukushima-disaster.

26. Charles Perrow, “Fukushima and the inevitability of accidents,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, December 1, 2011, http://thebulletin.org/fukushima-and-inevitability-accidents.

27. Will Boisvert, “Five Surprising Public Health Facts About Fukushima, “ The Breakthrough, March 12, 2015, http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/issues/nuclear/five-surprising-public-health-facts-about-fukushima.

28. Pushker A. Kharecha and James E. Hansen, “Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power,” Environmental Science & Technology 47, no. 9 (2013), http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es3051197.

29. http://thebulletin.org/nuclear-vs-renewables-divided-they-fall

30. Kennette Benedict, “The myth of absolute safety,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, March 26, 2014, http://thebulletin.org/myth-absolute-safety7007

31. Alan Robock, “20 Reasons why geoengineering may be a bad idea,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, May 30, 2013, http://thebulletin.org/2008/may/20-reasons-why-geoengineering-may-be-bad-idea.

32. Richard Black, “Carbon emissions ‘will defer Ice Age,’” BBC News, January 9, 2012, http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-16439807.