Frequently Asked Questions About Natural Gas

Understanding the Shale Gas Revolution

1. Pfeifer, Sylvia. “Methane hydrates could be energy of the future.” The Financial Times. January 17, 2014. http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/2/8925cbb4-7157-11e3-8f92-00144feabdc0.html#axzz39SwZCmEd

2. Trembath, Alex; Nordhaus, Ted; Shellenberger, Michael; Luke, Max. 2013. Coal Killer: How Natural Gas Fuels the Clean Energy Revolution. Breakthrough Institute. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/coal-killer.

3. National Research Council of the National Academies, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” NRC Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption, October 2009. http://media.kentucky.com/smedia/2009/10/19/10/HiddenCosts.source.prod_affili- ate.79.pdf.

4. Clean Air Task Force, “Cradle to Grave: The Environmental Impacts of Coal,” June 2001. http://www.catf.us/resources/publications/files/Cradle_to_Grave.pdf.

5. Heather Cooley, Kristina Donnelly, “Hydraulic Fracturing and Water Resources: Separating the Frack from the Fiction,” Pacific Institute, June 2012. http://www.pacinst.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/21/2013/02/full_report35.pdf.

6. Anil Markandya and Paul Wilkinson, “Electricity Generation and Health,” The Lancet 370: 979-990 (2007).

7. Ibid.

8. National Research Council of the National Academies, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” NRC Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption, October 2009. http://media.kentucky.com/smedia/2009/10/19/10/HiddenCosts.source.prod_affili- ate.79.pdf.

9. Brian Lutz, “Hydraulic Fracturing versus Mountaintop-Removal Coal Mining: Comparing Environmental Impacts,” Lecture at University of Tulsa, November 28, 2012.

10. Trembath, Alex; Nordhaus, Ted; Shellenberger, Michael; Luke, Max. 2013. Coal Killer: How Natural Gas Fuels the Clean Energy Revolution. Breakthrough Institute. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/coal-killer.

11. Brandt, A. R., et al. "Methane leaks from North American natural gas systems." Science 343.6172 (2014): 733-735.

12. Michael Shellenberger, Ted Nordhaus, Jesse Jenkins, and Alex Trembath. 2012. “Where the Shale Gas Revolution Came From: Government’s Role in the Development of Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale.” Breakthrough Institute. http://thebreakthrough.org/archive/shale_gas_fracking_history_and

13. Heath, Garvin A., et al. "Harmonization of initial estimates of shale gas life cycle greenhouse gas emissions for electric power generation." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2014): 201309334.

14. Venkatesh, Aranya, et al. "Uncertainty in life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from United States natural gas end-uses and its effects on policy."Environmental science & technology 45.19 (2011): 8182-8189.

15. Brian Lutz, “Hydraulic Fracturing versus Mountaintop-Removal Coal Mining: Comparing Environmental Impacts,” Lecture at University of Tulsa, November 28, 2012.

16. Alex Trembath and Max Luke, “Gas Industry Should Embrace Regulation: Sorting Out Legitimate Concerns About Fracking,” Breakthrough Institute, September 23, 2013. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/gas-industry-should-embrace-dialogue.  

17. Alex Trembath, “Methane Leakage from Cows Higher than from Natural Gas Development: New Data from EPA, DOE, and EDF Confirm Declining Methane Leakage,” Breakthrough Institute, March 6, 2014. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/methane-leakage-from-cows-higher-than-from-natural-gas-development.

18. Alex Trembath and Max Luke, “Methane Leakage Not a Deal Breaker for Natural Gas: A Response to Anthony R. Ingraffea,” Breakthrough Institute, July 29, 2013. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/methane-leakage-not-a-deal-breaker-for-natural-gas.

19. Alex Trembath, “Methane Leakage from Cows Higher than from Natural Gas Development: New Data from EPA, DOE, and EDF Confirm Declining Methane Leakage,” Breakthrough Institute, March 6, 2014. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/methane-leakage-from-cows-higher-than-from-natural-gas-development.

20. Andrew Revkin, “Two Climate Analysts Fault Gas Leaks, but Not as a Big Warming Threat,” The New York Times, August 1, 2013. http://dotearth.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/08/01/two-climate-analysts-fault-gas-leaks-but-not-as-a-big-warming-threat/.

21. Levi, Michael. "Climate consequences of natural gas as a bridge fuel." Climatic change 118.3-4 (2013): 609-623.

22. Hausfather, Zeke. “Climate Impacts of Coal and Natural Gas.” Berkeley Earth. August 2014. http://static.berkeleyearth.org/pdf/climate-impacts-of-coal-and-natural-gas.pdf

23. Osborn, Stephen G., et al. "Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing." proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108.20 (2011): 8172-8176.

24. Alex Trembath and Max Luke, “Gas Industry Should Embrace Regulation: Sorting Out Legitimate Concerns About Fracking,” Breakthrough Institute, September 23, 2013. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/programs/energy-and-climate/gas-industry-should-embrace-dialogue

25. Nordhaus, William D. Managing the global commons: the economics of climate change. Vol. 31. Cambridge, MA: MIT press, 1994.

26. Pacala, Stephen, and Robert Socolow. "Stabilization wedges: solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with current technologies." Science 305.5686 (2004): 968-972.

27. David Roberts, “A chat with Al Gore on carbon taxes, natural gas, and the ‘morally wrong’ Keystone pipeline,” Grist, November 20, 2012. http://grist.org/climate-energy/a-chat-with-al-gore-on-carbon-taxes-natural-gas-and-the-morally- wrong-keystone-pipeline/.

28. Michael Shellenberger and Ted Nordhaus, “President Obama, Coal Killer: How America’s Climate Strategy Became Tied to Natural Gas,” Breakthrough Institute, July 3, 2013. http://thebreakthrough.org/index.php/voices/michael-shellenberger-and-ted-nordhaus/president-obama-coal-killer

29. An analysis by graduate students at Yale University calculated that the total US economic benefit of the shale gas revolution for a single year totaled more than $100 billion, in 2010. Using a similar methodology, we estimate that this annual amount will exceed $100 billion through 2020. See Robert Ames et al., “The Arithmetic of Shale Gas,” Yale Graduates in Energy Study Group, June 2012. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2085027

30. Trembath, Alex; Nordhaus, Ted; Shellenberger, Michael; Luke, Max. 2013. Coal Killer: How Natural Gas Fuels the Clean Energy Revolution. Breakthrough Institute.

31. April Lee et al., “Interactions, Complementarities and Tensions at the Nexus of Natural Gas and Renewable Energy,” The Electricity Journal, 25 (December 2012).

32. Trembath, Alex; Nordhaus, Ted; Shellenberger, Michael; Luke, Max. 2013. Coal Killer: How Natural Gas Fuels the Clean Energy Revolution. Breakthrough Institute.

33. States,” Deloitte for Energy Solutions, January 2013. https://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-UnitedStates/Local percent20Assets/Documents/Energy_us_er/us_er_GlobalImpactUSLNGExports_AmericanRenaissance_Jan2013.pdf