Harmonic Destruction

How Greens Justify Bioenergy's Assault on Nature

1. “Stromerzeugung 1990-2013,” AG Energiebilanzen, http://www.ag-energiebilanzen.de/index.php?article_id=29&fileName=20131220_brd_stromerzeugung1990-2013.pdf.

2. “The Fuel of the Future,” The Economist, April 4, 2013, http://www.economist.com/news/business/21575771-environmental-lunacy-europe-fuel-future

3. Staff, “The Price of Green Energy: Is Germany Killing the Environment to Save It,” Der Spiegel, March 12, 2013, http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/german-renewable-energy-policy-takes-toll-on-nature-conservation-a-888094.html

4. “General Information: Biomass,” German Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building, and Nuclear Safety, http://bit.ly/1o2vEJ7.

5. “The Fuel of the Future.”

6. US Energy Information Administration, “Renewable Energy Production and Consumption By Source,” January 2014, http://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/data/monthly/pdf/sec10_3.pdf.

7. Farm Chemurgic Council, Proceedings of the Dearborn Conference of Agriculture, Industry and Science, Dearborn, MI, May 7-8, 1935, http://beta.worldcat.org/archivegrid/data/774599272.

8. Ibid., 104-5.

9. Ibid., 57.

10. Ibid., 97.

11. Ibid., 41.

12. Ibid., 30.

13. Z. Guo, C. Sun, and D.L. Grebner, “Utilization of forest derived biomass for energy production in the USA: status, challenges, and public policies,” International Forestry Review 9, no. 3 (2007): 754, http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/for274new/pdfs/2011/handouts/forest%20biomass_untilization.pdf.

14. Bruce Johansen, “Farming for New Energy with Waste and Weeds,” Washington Post, August 28, 1977.

15. Malcolm W. Browne, “Plants and Organic Waste Offer Hopes of Filling U.S. Energy Gap,” New York Times, December 10, 1979.

16. Manomet Center for Conservation Sciences, Biomass Sustainability and Carbon Policy Study: Report to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Department of Energy Resources, June 2010. https://www.manomet.org/sites/default/files/publications_and_tools/Manomet_Biomass_Report_Full_June2010.pdf.

17. Melissa C. Lott, “Big Coal – Big Biomass at UK’s Drax Power Station,” Scientific American, September 6, 2013, http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/plugged-in/2013/09/06/photo-credit-big-coal-big-biomass-at-the-u-k-s-drax-power-station/.

18. Roger Harrabin, “Biofuels: MPs to consider subsidies for power stations,” BBC, March 5, 2013, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-21672840.

19. Charles Abbott, “US Drought Crop Damage Worsens, Ethanol Waiver Urged,” Reuters, August 10, 2012. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/10/drought-idUSL2E8JAFB920120810.

20. “The State of Food Insecurity in the World,” Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 2009, http://www.fao.org/docrep/012/i0876e/i0876e00.htm.

21. Timothy Searchinger, et al. “Use of US Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions From Land-Use,” Science 319, no. 5867 (2008): 1238-1240, http://www.sciencemag.org/content/319/5867/1238

22. Joseph Fargione, et al. “Land Clearing and the Biofuel Debt,” Science 319, no. 5867 (2008): 1235-1238, http://www.sciencemag.org/content/319/5867/1235.abstract.

23. Ibid.

24. LeAndra Spicer, “Smoke and Mirrors: Wood Biomass and the Environment,” F2M Market Watch (blog), Forest 2 Market, May 31, 2013, http://www.forest2market.com/blog/smoke-and-mirrors-wood-biomass-and-the-environment.

25. Mackinnon Lawrence, “Despite Evidence, Food vs. Fuel Fight Continues,” Forbes, July 11, 2013, http://www.forbes.com/sites/pikeresearch/2013/07/11/despite-evidence-food-vs-fuel-fight-continues/.

26. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Greenpeace, and Friends of the Earth. Dirtier Than Coal? November 2012, http://www.foe.co.uk/sites/default/files/downloads/dirtier_than_coal.pdf.

27. Greenpeace UK, “EU biofuels proposal – Greenpeace responds,” news release, October 17, 2012, http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/media/press-releases/eu-biofuels-proposal-greenpeace-response-20121017.

28. “Biofuels,” Friends of the Earth, http://www.foe.org/projects/climate-and-energy/biofuels.

29. Mackinnon Lawrence.

30. Bruno Burger, “Electricity production from solar and wind in Germany in 2012,” Fraunhofer ISE, pg. 132, http://www.ise.fraunhofer.de/en/news/news-2012/electricity-production-from-solar-and-wind-in-germany-in-2012. Total production from wind and solar during November 12-18, 2012 was 0.51 TWh, an average hourly power production of about 3 GW. Nominal wind and solar capacity was about 62 GW (pg. 3), so average power production that week was about 4.8 percent of nominal capacity.

31. “Integration der erneuerbren Energien in den deutsch-europaischen strommarkt,” Deutsch Energie-Agentur, August 15, 2012, pg. 157, http://www.dena.de/fileadmin/user_upload/Presse/Meldungen/2012/Endbericht_Integration_EE.pdf.

32. Australian Energy Market Operator, 100 Percent Renewables Study—Draft Modelling Outcomes, April 24, 2013, pg. 29-36, http://www.climatechange.gov.au/sites/climatechange/files/files/reducing-carbon/aemo/renewables-study-report-draft-20130424.pdf.

33. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, “Renewable Electricity Futures Study: Executive Summary,” 2012, pg. 22-26, http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/52409-ES.pdf.

34. US Department of Energy, US Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Biproducts Industry, August 2011, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/bioenergy/pdfs/billion_ton_update.pdf.

35. Union of Concerned Scientists, Clean Power and Fuel – If Handled Right, September 2012, http://www.ucsusa.org/assets/documents/clean_vehicles/Biomass-Resource-Assessment.pdf.

36. Ibid., 4.

37. Natural Resources Defense Council, Getting Biofuels Right: Eight Steps for Reaping Real Environmental Benefits from Biofuels, September 2007, https://www.nrdc.org/energy/files/right.pdf.

38. US Department of Energy, US Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Biproducts Industry, August 2011, http://www1.eere.energy.gov/bioenergy/pdfs/billion_ton_update.pdf.

39. Ibid., xxvi.

40. Ibid, 91.

41. Ibid., 137.

42. Ibid, 151.

43. Ibid, 21.

44. Ibid, 138-9.

45. Ibid, 114; 106-9.

46. Maureen Nandini Mitra, “Can GMO Trees Save Forests,” Salon, September 7, 2013, http://www.salon.com/2013/09/07/gm_trees_could_save_our_forests_or_alter_them_inexorably_partner/