Raiding Progress

How Ralph Nader and the Public Interest Movement Undermined American Liberalism


1. Dorothy Ross, The Origins of American Social Science (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990).

2. Elizabeth Sanders, Roots of Reform: Farmers, Workers, and the American State, 1877–1917 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999).

3. Quoted in Simon Lazarus, The Genteel Populists (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1974), 37, cited in David Vogel, Kindred Strangers: The Uneasy Relationship Between Politics and Business in America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), 153.

4. John Chamberlain, The American Stakes (New York; Carrick and Evans, 1940), 31–32, cited in Daniel T. Rodgers, Contested Truths: Keywords in American Politics since Independence (New York: Basic Books, 1987), 208.

5. Ralph Nader and Donald K. Ross, Action for a Change: A Student’s Manual for Public Interest Organizing (New York: Grossman Publishers, 1971).

6. Robert A. Kagan, Adversarial Legalism: The American Way of Law (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001), 48.

7. Ibid, 224.

8. Michael McCann, Taking Reform Seriously: Public Interest Liberalism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1986), 64.

9. Jeremy A. Rabkin, “The Secret Life of the Private Attorney General,” Law and Contemporary Problems 61, no. 1 (1998).

10. Kagan.

11. Ibid, 26–29.

12. Charles W. Calomiris and Stephen H. Haber, Fragile by Design: The Political Origins of Banking Crises and Scarce Credit (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014), 219.

13. Ibid, 221.

14. Isabelle Groc, “Shooting Owls to Save Other Owls,” National Geographic, July 19, 2014,

15. Tim Morrison, “Ralph Nader, Fiction Writer,” TIME, September 23, 2009,,8599,1925576,00.html.