Rewilding Pragmatism

Or, What an African Safari Can Teach America


1. Bill McKibben, “Epilogue,” in Wilderness Comes Home: Rewilding the Northeast, ed. Christopher McGrory Klyza (Hanover: Middlebury College Press, 2001) 275−278.

2. Douglas Smith and Gary Ferguson, Decade of the Wolf: Returning The Wild To Yellowstone (Guilford, CT: Lyons Press, 2012).

3. Michelle A. LaRue, et al., “Cougars are recolonizing the Midwest: Analysis of cougar confirmations during 1990-2008,” Journal of Wildlife Management 76, no. 7 (2012).

4. Michael E. Soulé and John Terborgh (eds.) Continental Conservation: Scientific Foundations of Regional Reserve Networks (Washington, DC: Island Press, 1999).

5. For a range of views on the subject, see Foreman 2004; Fraser 2009; Klyza 2001; MacKinnon 2013; Manning 2009; Martin 2005; Monbiot 2004; and Soulé and Terborgh 1999.

6. See usage in George Wuerthner, et al, (eds.) Keeping the Wild: Against the Domestication of Earth (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2014), 7, 34−35, 40, 164, 184, 186, and 199.

7. For example, David Johns, “With Friends Like These, Wilderness and Biodiversity Do Not Need Enemies,” in Keeping the Wild: Against the Domestication of Earth, eds. George Wuerthner, et al. (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2014), 31−44; Ned Hettinger, “Valuing Naturalness In the ‘Anthropocene,’” in Keeping the Wild: Against the Domestication of Earth, eds. George Wuerthner, et al. (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2014), 174−182; Reed Noss, et al., “Core Areas: Where Nature Reigns,” in Continental Conservation: Scientific Foundations of Regional Reserve Networks, eds. Michael Soulé and John Terborgh (Washington DC: Island Press, 1999), 99−128.  

8. Deanne Stillman, Mustang: The Saga of the Wild Horse in the American West (New York: Mariner Books, 2008).

9. The Wildlife Society, “Feral Horses: Get the Facts,”

10. Paul S. Martin and Richard G. Klein, eds. Quaternary Extinctions: A Prehistoric Revolution (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1989).

11. Jay Kirkpatrick and Patricia Fazio, “The Surprising History of America’s Wild Horses.” Live Science, July 24, 2008,

12. Paul S. Martin, Twilight of the Mammoths: Ice Age Extinctions and the Rewilding of North America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005).

13. Connie Barlow, Connie, The Ghosts of Evolution: Nonsensical Fruit, Missing Partners, and Other Ecological Anachronisms (New York: Basic Books, 2000). 

14. Martin, 2005.

15. Woolly mammoths and Columbian mammoths were so closely related that they were able to hybridize; see

16. Kirkpatrick Sale, The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy (New York: Knopf, 1990), 316.

17. One study of Smilodon teeth preserved in the La Brea Tar Pits of Los Angeles, however, suggests that camels and bison were the cat’s main prey. 

18. Johan T. du Toit, Kevin H. Rogers, and Harry C. Biggs (eds.), The Kruger Experience: Ecology And Management Of Savanna Heterogeneity (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2003), 332−248. 

19. Rhidian Harrington, et al., “Establishing the Causes of the Roan Antelope Decline in the Kruger National Park, South Africa,” Biological Conservation 90, no. 1 (1999) 69−78. 

20. Ian J. Whyte, Rudi J. van Aarde, and Stuart L. Pimm, “Kruger’s Elephant Population: Its Size and Consequence for Ecosystem Heterogeneity,” in The Kruger Experience: Ecology And Management Of Savanna Heterogeneity, eds. Johan du Toit, Kevin H. Rogers, and Harry C. Biggs (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2003), 332−248. 

21. Jenny A. Cousins, Jon P. Sadler, and James Evans, “Exploring the Role of Private Wildlife Ranching as a Conservation Tool in South Africa: Stakeholder Perspectives,” Ecology and Society 13, no. 2 (2008), 43.

22. Some private game reserves have reintroduced wild dogs, but populations are difficult to maintain; see

23. Daniel S. Licht, Brian C. Kenner, and Daniel E. Roddy, “A Comparison of the South African and United States Models of Natural Areas Management,” ISRN Biodiversity vol. 2014 (2014) 1−7.

24. See Julie Phillips, et al., “Safe Passage for Coyote Valley,” DeAnza College, Environmental Studies Department, 2012,

25. See Julie Cart, “California: The Next Grizzly Habitat? Some Want to See It Happen,” LA Times, Aug 2, 2014,; Carlos Carroll, et al., “The Return of the Wolf, Grizzly Bear and Wolverine to Oregon and California: Biologically Feasible?” in Large Mammal Restoration: Ecological and Sociological Challenges in the 21st Century, eds. David Maehr, Reed F. Noss, and Jeffery L. Larkin (Washington, DC: Island Press, 2001), 25−46.