Does Capitalism Require Endless Growth?

Marx and Malthus Reconsidered

1. Donella H. Meadows, Dennis L. Meadows, Jørgen Randers, and William W. Behrens III, The Limits to Growth, Universe Books, 1972.

2. Paul M. Sweezy, “Capitalism and the Environment,” Monthly Review, volume 41, no. 2 (June 1989): 8.

3. Fred Magdoff and John Bellamy Foster, “What Every Environmentalist Needs to Know about Capitalism,” Chapter 3: The Growth Imperative of Capitalism.  Monthly Review Press, 2011.

4. Giorgos Kallas, “The Left Should Embrace Degrowth,” The New Internationalist, 11 November 2015.  Available at:  (accessed 11-13-15)

5. Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, Race Against the Machine, Digital Frontier Press, Lexington, Massachusetts, 2011.

6. John Maynard Keynes, “Economic Possibilities for our Grandchildren,” (1930). In: Essays in Persuasion, New York: W.W.Norton & Co., 1963.

7. Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century,

8. Robert J. Gordon, “Is U.S. Economic Growth Over? Faltering Innovation Confronts the Six Headwinds,” NBER Working Paper No. 18315, August, 2012.

9. Robert J. Gordon, “The Demise of U.S. Economic Growth: Restatement, Rebuttal, and Reflections,” NBER Working Paper No. 19895, February, 2014.  

10. Paul Mason, “The end of capitalism has begun,” The Guardian, July 2015.

11. Mason, ibid.

12. Gordon, ibid.

13. World Bank, Real GDP per-capita growth rates,

14. World Bank, Household final consumption expenditure per-capita (constant 2005 US$).

15. OECD, OECD.Stat Average Annual Wages (PPP method),

16. Ibid.

17. Mark J. Perry, “For home appliances, the ‘good old days’ are now: They’re cheaper, better and more energy efficient than ever before,” American Enterprise Institute, January, 2016. .

18. Kevin A. Hassett and Aparna Mathur, “A New Measure of consumption inequality,”AEI Economic Studies, June, 2012.

19. UNI-WIDER (United Nations University), Gini Indices, 

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid.

22. ILO Global Wage report, 2012/2013 (esp. Table 1):

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid.

25. Patrick Belser article: “Global Wage Trends: The Great Convergence?”

26. Samuelson, P. A.  "International Trade and the Equalisation of Factor Prices", Economic Journal, 1948.

27. World Bank, “Regional aggregation using 2011 PPP and $1.9/day poverty line”

28. OECD, OECD Data, Employment, Hours Worked. 

29. OECD, OECD.Stat Average Annual Wages. Op. cit.

30. Modigliani, F., Brumberg, R., 1954. Utility analysis and the consumption function: an interpretation of cross-section data. In: Kurihara, Kenneth K. (Ed.), Post Keynesian Economics. Trustees of Rutgers College, New Jersey

31. Bill McKibben, Eaarth,;  Research and Degrowth (R&D). ; Club for Degrowth.; 

32. World Bank, Gross National Income per Capita 2014, Atlas Method and PPP. 

33. Ibid.

34. Harry D. Saunders, “Toward a neoclassical theory of sustainable consumption: Eight golden age propositions,” Ecological Economics 105, 2014.

35. Saunders, ibid.

36. ILO Global Wage report, 2012/2013, ibid. 

37. Belser, ibid.

38. Samuelson, ibid.