Leapfrogging Progress

The Misplaced Promise of Africa's Mobile Revolution

1. See Harford, T. “Money via mobile: The M-Pesa revolution.” BBC (February 13, 2017), http://www.bbc.com/news/business-38667475; and Monks, K. “M-Pesa: Kenya’s mobile money success story turns 10,” CNN (February 24, 2017), http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/21/africa/mpesa-10th-anniversary/.

2. Amankwah-Amoahm, J. 2014. “Solar Energy in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Challenges and Opportunities of Technological Leapfrogging.” Thunderbird International Business Review 49.1: 15–31.

3. See Juma, C. “Infrastructure for Innovation.” New African (June 26, 2015), http://newafricanmagazine.com/infrastructure-for-innovation/.

4. Batuo, M. E. 2015. “The Role of Telecommunications Infrastructure in the Regional Economic Growth of Africa.” Journal of Developing Areas 49.1: 313–330.

5. Ndemo, B. 2016. “Inside a Policymaker’s Mind: An Entrepreneurial Approach to Policy Development and Implementation.” In Ndemo, B. and T. Weiss, eds. Digital Kenya: An Entrepreneurial Revolution in the Making. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 239–267.

6. Juma, C., and Y. C. Lee. 2005. Innovation: Applying Knowledge in Development. London: Earthscan, London, 78–87.

7. Juma, C. 2011. “Africa’s New Engine.” Finance and Development 48.4: 6–11.

8. See Juma, C. 2015. The New Harvest: Agricultural Innovation in Africa. Rev. ed. New York: Oxford University Press. http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/25699/new_harvest.html.

9. Ville, S., and O. Wicken. 2013. “The Dynamics of Resource-Based Economic Development: Evidence from Australia and Norway.” Industrial and Corporate Change 22.5: 1341–1371.

10. David, P. A., and G. Wright. 1997. “Increasing Returns and the Genesis of American Resource Abundance.” Industrial and Corporate Change 6.2: 203–245.

11. Nam, K. M. 2011. “Learning through the International Joint Venture: Lessons from the Experience of China’s Automotive Sector.” Industrial and Corporate Change 20.3: 855–907.

12. Hung, C. Y., et al. 2006. “Global Industrial Migration: The Case of the Integrated Circuit Industry.” International Journal of Technology and Globalisation 2.3–4: 362–376.

13. Hausmann, R. “Secrets of Economic Growth.” World Economic Forum (March 10, 2015), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2FeugaLv5Bo.

14. Juma, C. 2014. “Complexity, Innovation, and Development: Schumpeter Revisited.” Journal of Policy and Complex Systems 1.1: 4–21.

15. African Development Bank. “Infrastructure Finance.” https://www.afdb.org/en/topics-and-sectors/sectors/private-sector/areas-of-focus/infrastructure-finance/.

16. See Song, S. “African Undersea Cables.” Updated June 2016, https://manypossibilities.net/african-undersea-cables/.

17. See “10 African cities with free Wi-Fi.” IT News Africa (April 22, 2014), http://www.itnewsafrica.com/2014/04/10-african-centres-with-free-wi-fi/.

18. Adesina, O., et al., eds. 2016. Innovation Africa: Emerging Hubs of Excellence. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.

19. Mangeni, F., and C. Juma. Forthcoming. Emergent Africa: Evolution of Regional Economic Integration. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.