After Agroecology

Why Traditional Agricultural Practices Can't Transform African Agriculture

  1. M. Altieri and C. Nicholls Agroecology and the Search for a Truly Sustainable Agriculture (UN Environmental Programme, 2005),

  2. Jess Margolus, Tara Nakashima, and Chantal Orr, "Appropriate Technology: Learning from One Another,"

  3. Felipe Gallardo-López et al., "Development of the Concept of Agroecology in Europe: A Review," Sustainability, 10 (2018): 1210,

  4. Felipe Gallardo-López et al., pg. 7.

  5. V. Seufert, N. Ramankutty, and J. A. Foley, “Comparing the Yields of Organic and Conventional Agriculture,” Nature 485 (2012): 229–32.

  6. Ponisio LC, M’Gonigle LK, Mace KC, et al., “Diversification Practices Reduce Organic to Conventional Yield Gap,” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 282 (2015), no. 1799: 20141396.

  7. Miguel A. Altieri and Victor Manuel Toledo, “The Agroecological Revolution in Latin America: Rescuing Nature, Ensuring Food Sovereignty and Empowering Peasants.” Journal of Peasant Studies 38, no. 3 (2011): 587,

  8. Peter M. Rosset and Maria Elena Martínez-Torres, “Rural Social Movements and Agroecology: Context, Theory, and Process,” Ecology and Society 17, no. 3 (2012): 17,

  9. Sarah K. Lowder, Jakob Skoet, and Terri Raney, “The Number, Size, and Distribution of Farms, Smallholder Farms, and Family Farms Worldwide,” World Development 87 (November 2016): 17,

  10. United Nations NEPAD, Agriculture in Africa: Transformation and Outlook,

  11. Gollin and Rogerson, Agriculture, Roads, and Economic Development in Uganda, pg. 4,

  12. Miguel A. Altieri, “Applying Agroecology to Enhance the Productivity of Peasant Farming Systems in Latin America,” Environment, Development and Sustainability 1 (1999): 199,

  13. Glenn Denning Ugandan farmers would still be limited by poor national irrigation infrastructure, Pedro Sanchez, et al. “Input Subsidies to Improve Smallholder Maize Productivity in Malawi: Toward an African Green Revolution,” PLoS Biology 7 (2009): e23,

  14. Peter R. Nkhoma, “The Evolution of Agricultural Input Subsidy Programs: Contextualizing Policy Debates in Malawi’s FISP,” World Development Perspectives 9 (March 2018): 12–17,

  15. Christopher Chibwana, Charles B. L. Jumbe, and Gerald Shively, “Agricultural Subsidies and Forest Clearing in Malawi,” Environmental Conservation 40, no. 1 (March 2013): 60–70.

  16. Monica Fisher and Gerald E. Shively, “Agricultural Subsidies and Forest Pressure in Malawi’s ‘Miombo’ Woodlands,” Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 32, No. 2 (August 2007): 349–62,

  17. Distributed irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa. Jennifer A. Burney, Rosamond L. Naylor, Sandra L. Postel. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jul 2013, 110 (31) 12513-12517; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1203597110


  19. Ethiopian Agricultural Transformation Agency. Accessed 18 October, 2018. Shallow Ground Water Mapping. highlighted-deliverables/input-voucher-sales-system-ivs/

  20. Douglas Gollin and Richard Rogerson, Agriculture, Roads, and Economic Development in Uganda, NBER Working Paper no. 15863 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1999): 2,