Biotech and Pharma

Case Study No. 3 in How to Make Nuclear Innovative

[1] Gottinger, Hans, and Celia Umali. “Organizational entrepreneurship: a historical overview on industry alliances in biotech and pharmaceuticals.” Open Business Journal 4 (2011): 14-27.

[2] Michael Winerip, “The Death and Afterlife of Thalidomide,” New York Times, September 23, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/09/23/booming/the-death-and-afterlife-of-thalidomide.html.

[3] Emory Libraries and Information Technology Research Guides, http://guides.main.library.emory.edu/c.php?g=50422&p=325039.

[4] Zucker, Lynne G., Michael R. Darby, and Marilynn B. Brewer. “Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of US Biotechnology Enterprises.” American Economic Review (1998): 290-306.

[5] Munos, Bernard. “Lessons from 60 years of pharmaceutical innovation.” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 8.12 (2009): 959-968.

[6] Munos, Bernard. “Lessons from 60 years of pharmaceutical innovation.” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 8.12 (2009): 959-968.

[7] Colwell, Rita R. “Fulfilling the promise of biotechnology.” Biotechnology Advances 20.3 (2002): 215-228.

[8] Colwell, Rita R. “Fulfilling the promise of biotechnology.” Biotechnology Advances 20.3 (2002): 215-228.

[9] Munos, Bernard. “Lessons from 60 years of pharmaceutical innovation.” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 8.12 (2009): 959-968.

[10] Kneller, Robert. “The importance of new companies for drug discovery: origins of a decade of new drugs.” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 9.11 (2010): 867-882.

[11] Lawrence, Stacy, and Raiku Lahteenmaki. “Public biotech 2013: the numbers.” Nature Biotechnology 32.7 (2014): 626-632.

[12]  Reh, Gregory et al. “2016 Global Life Science outlook: Moving forward with cautious optimism” Deloitte (2016).

[13] Robinson, David T., and Toby E. Stuart. “Financial contracting in biotech strategic alliances.” The Journal of Law and Economics 50.3 (2007): 559-596.

[14] Morrison, Chris. “Fresh from the biotech pipeline--2014.” Nature Biotechnology 33.2 (2015): 125-129.

[15] Mariana Mazzucato and Giovanni Dosi, eds., Knowledge Accumulation and Industry Evolution: The Case of Pharma-Biotech, (2006) Cambridge University Press.

[16] Gambardella, Alfonso. Science and innovation: The US pharmaceutical industry during the 1980s. Cambridge University Press, (1995).

[17] Gambardella, Alfonso. Science and innovation: The US pharmaceutical industry during the 1980s. Cambridge University Press, (1995).

[18] Gottinger, Hans, and Celia Umali. “Organizational entrepreneurship: a historical overview on industry alliances in biotech and pharmaceuticals.” Open Business Journal 4 (2011): 14-27.

[19] Audretsch, David B. “The role of small firms in US biotechnology clusters.” Small Business Economics 17.1-2 (2001): 3-15.

[20] Lawrence, Stacy, and Raiku Lahteenmaki. “Public biotech 2013: the numbers.” Nature Biotechnology 32.7 (2014): 626-632.

[21] Schweizer, Lars. “Knowledge transfer and R&D in pharmaceutical companies: A case study.” Journal of Engineering and Technology Management 22.4 (2005): 315-331.

[22] Zucker, Lynne G., Michael R. Darby, and Marilynn B. Brewer. “Intellectual Human Capital and the Birth of US Biotechnology Enterprises.” American Economic Review (1998): 290-306.

[23] Owen-Smith, Jason, and Walter W. Powell. “Knowledge networks as channels and conduits: The effects of spillovers in the Boston biotechnology community.” Organization Science 15.1 (2004): 5-21.

[24] Munos, Bernard. “Lessons from 60 years of pharmaceutical innovation.” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 8.12 (2009): 959-968.

[25] Lazonick, William, and Öner Tulum. “US biopharmaceutical finance and the sustainability of the biotech business model.” Research Policy 40.9 (2011): 1170-1187.

[26] Lazonick, William, and Öner Tulum. “US biopharmaceutical finance and the sustainability of the biotech business model.” Research Policy 40.9 (2011): 1170-1187.

[27] “Pharmaceutical and Biotech Spotlight: The Pharmaceutical and Biotech Industries in the United States.” SelectUSA,  https://www.selectusa.gov/pharmaceutical-and-biotech-industries-united-states.

[28] “Spending of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry on research and development at home and abroad from 1990 to 2015 (in million U.S. dollars).” Statista (2017), https://www.statista.com/statistics/265090/us-pharmaceutical-industry-spending-on-research-and-development/

[29] Lazonick, William, and Öner Tulum. “US biopharmaceutical finance and the sustainability of the biotech business model.” Research Policy 40.9 (2011): 1170-1187.

[30] Boadi, Kwame. “Erosion of Funding for the National Institutes of Health Threatens U.S. Leadership in Biomedical Research” CAP (2014).

[31] Vallas, Steven, Kleinman, Daniel and Biscotti, Dina. “Political Structures and the making of US Biotechnology” in State of Innovation: The U.S. Government's Role in Technology Development (2011). Paradigm Publishers.

[32] Vallas, Steven, Kleinman, Daniel and Biscotti, Dina. “Political Structures and the making of US Biotechnology” in State of Innovation: The U.S. Government's Role in Technology Development (2011). Paradigm Publishers.

[33] Giesecke, Susanne. “The contrasting roles of government in the development of biotechnology industry in the US and Germany.” Research Policy 29.2 (2000): 205-223.

[34] Morgan, Steve, et al. “The cost of drug development: a systematic review.” Health Policy 100.1 (2011): 4-17.

[35] Tracy Marc, “NuScale applies for first SMR license with U.S. NRC,” American Nuclear Society, January 12, 2017, http://www.ans.org/pi/news/article-600/.

[36] “NuScale, DOE Sign $217M Contract to Fund SMR Project,” Nuclear Energy Institute, May 28, 2014, https://www.nei.org/News-Media/News/News-Archives/NuScale,-DOE-Sign-217M-Contract-to-Fund-SMR-Projec.

[37] Khanna, Ish. “Drug discovery in pharmaceutical industry: productivity challenges and trends.” Drug Discovery Today 17.19 (2012): 1088-1102.

[38] Scherer, Frederic M. “Pricing, profits, and technological progress in the pharmaceutical industry.” The Journal of Economic Perspectives 7.3 (1993): 97-115.

[39] Conti, Rena M., and Ernst R. Berndt. “Specialty drug prices and utilization after loss of US patent exclusivity, 2001–2007.” Measuring and Modeling Health Care Costs. University of Chicago Press, 2016.

[40] Kornfield, Rachel, Julie Donohue, Ernst R. Berndt, G. Caleb Alexander. “Promotion of Prescription Drugs to Consumers and Providers, 2001–2010.” Plos One 8.3 (2013): 1–7.

[41] Statista, accessed 01/27/2017.

[42] U.S. Food & Drug Administration, https://www.fda.gov/default.htm.

[43] United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, https://www.nrc.gov/.